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I migliori materiali per l’isolamento termico

Per rendere la casa più efficiente e risparmiare energicamente sul riscaldamento è necessario progettare case in legno con elevato isolamento termico oppure utilizzando materiali e sistemi per evitare dispersioni di calore.

Lana di vetro

E un isolante di natura minerale molto utilizzato, oggi realizzato per circa l’80% con materiali di riciclo (vetro).

Fonoassorbente e incombustibile ha una struttura “aperta” perché contiene ingenti quantità d’aria all’interno che impediscono il passaggio dei rumori ma anche del caldo e del freddo.

Per questo motivo isola perfettamente al calore. Inoltre è resistente all’acqua e all’umidità. E fra i materiali più utilizzati anche per il costo non particolarmente elevato.

Materie plastiche espanse in schiuma

È una tipologia di isolante pratica e leggera, ma nonostante possa sembrare di facile impiego va sempre trattata da specialisti che ne sappiano calcolare modi e tempi di utilizzo.

È adoperata soprattutto in situazioni in cui è necessario penetrare in fori, cavità e intercapedini (tubi, canaline…) e dove altri materiali isolanti, disponibili in fogli o pannelli, non potrebbero essere utilizzati.

Non è consigliata in contesti come sottotetti o sotto tegole perché potrebbe dare luogo a fastidiose formazioni di condensa e umidità.

Polistirene espanso

È un materiale comune traspirante, ma al tempo stesso impermeabile all’acqua, ha buone proprietà termoisolanti date dalla bassa conducibilità e può essere impiegato per lungo tempo, senza subire alterazioni (oltre 25 anni).

Non è un materiale “naturale”, ma è considerato non inquinante, infatti nella sua forma pura è riciclabile completamente. Viene utilizzato sotto forma di lastre per l’isolamento termico dei pavimenti.

Nelle facciate nuove, o da ristrutturare, è fondamentale per realizzare il cappotto termico (l’eliminazione definitiva di condensa e la totale chiusura di tutti quei punti della struttura in cui si hanno delle vie per la dispersione del calore) oltre che per l’isolamento di soffitti e sottotetti e per la creazione di controsoffitti sospesi.

È oggi spesso preferito al sughero per i costi più contenuti e per la sua inattaccabilità da muffe e parassiti.

Sughero

È un buon isolante sia termico sia acustico utilizzato per interno ed esterno, ha un’ottima resistenza alla salsedine ed è spesso impiegato per rivestimenti termici a cappotto e deumidificazioni o per riempire intercapedini.

Quello maggiormente utilizzato è sotto forma di pannelli. Si ottiene dalla corteccia della quercia da sughero e trova ancora largo impiego perché, rispetto agli altri, è completamente naturale ed ecocompatibile.

Da non perdere

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